HISTORY: Michael Romanov, son of the patriarch of Moscow, elected Czar of Russia thus founding the House of Romanov; Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden captures Novgorod from Russians; Richelieu becomes Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and War in France; Tartars of Manchu invade China; Beginning of Thirty Years' War; Sir Walter Raleigh returns to England and is executed; Maria de Medici challenges power of her son Louis XIII of France; Louis recalls Richelieu; Archduke Ferdinand of Bohemia is elected Holy Roman Emperor; Pilgrim Fathers found Plymouth Colony.

ARTS: Ben Johnson: "Bartholomew Fayre", a comedy; John Webster: "The Duchess of Malfi"; Sir Walter Raleigh: "The History of the World"; Salzburg Cathedral built by Santino Salari; Girolamo Frescobaldi: "Toccate di Cembalo"; James I makes Ben Jonson poet laureate.

SCIENCE/GROWTH: Danish East India Company founded; University of Groningen, Holland, founded; Cornelius Jacobsen Mey explores the Lower Delaware; Santorio Santorio study of metabolism and perspiration; William Harvey discovers circulation of blood; Development of glass industry in England; Galileo Galilei faces the Inquisition for first time; William Baffin discovers Baffin Bay while searching for a Northwest Passage; Founding of Dutch West African Company; First Negro slaves in North America arrive in Virginia.


HISTORY: Philip III of Spain dies; succeeded by his son Philip IV; Huguenot rebellion against Louis XIII; Richelieu recalled by Louis XIII to the Council, created Cardinal; James I dissolves English Parliament; Cardinal Richelieu made first minister of France; James I of England (James VI of Scotland) dies, succeeded by Charles I of England and Scotland; Korea becomes a tributary state of China; Dutch occupy Java and the Moluccas; John Winthrop, English Puritan leader (1587-1649), arrives in Massachusetts with 1,000 settlers, 16,000 more settlers follow; Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden marches his army into Germany.

ARTS: Rembrandt becomes pupil of J.I. Swanenburg in Leiden; Nicholas Poussin: "Rape of the Sabine Women"; Facade of St. Peter's in Rome finished, consecrated by Pope Urban VIII; Ignatius Loyola canonized by Pope Gregory XV; Taj Mahal, Agra, built; Thomas Hobbes translates "The Peloponnesian War" by Thucydides; Bernini takes over direction of uncompleted work at St. Peter's in Rome; Beginning of the High Baroque period in Italy.

SCIENCE/GROWTH: Potatoes planted in Germany for first time; First English settlement in New Hampshire at Little Harbor near Rye; Patents law in England to protect inventors; Pembroke College Oxford founded; First fire engines in England; Hackney coaches appear in streets of London; Santorio Santorio, Italian physician, measures human temperature with the thermometer for the first time; Peter Minuit buys the entire Island of Manhattan from native Indian chiefs for merchandise valued at 60 guilders (about $24); Johann Kepler compiles the Rudolphine Tables giving places of 1,005 fixed stars.