HISTORY: Charles I issues charter for the colony Maryland (named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria), under control of Lord Baltimore; Queen Christina ascends throne of Sweden; Portuguese driven out of Bengal; Charles I crowned King of Scotland; Thirty Years' War now becomes a conflict between France and Sweden against the House of Hapsburg; Dutch settle in Ceylon; Turkey recovers Baghdad from Persia; Russian Cossacks advance over Urals to Pacific; French finish occupation of Alsace; Portugal becomes independent.

ARTS: Rembrandt: "Saskia"; Van Dyck: "Charles I"; Frescobaldi: "Fiori musicali di toccate", which influences J.S. Bach; Teatro San Cassiano, first public opera house, opens in Venice; Drury Lane Theatre, London, receives its first patent.

SCIENCE/GROWTH: First coffee shop opens in London; English trading post established in Bengal; Jean Nicolet lands on Green Bay, explores Wisconsin; Covent Garden Market, London, opened; Budapest University established; Speed limit on hackney coaches in London set at 3 m.p.h.; First inland postal service in Britain between London and Edinburgh; Harvard College founded at Newe Towne, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Tea appears for first time in Paris; Commercial collapse of Dutch tulip trade; Anne Hutchinson is banished from Boston and sets up a community in Rhode Island; Torture abolished in England; Quinine increasingly used for medicinal purposes; English settle at Madras; Coke made from coal for first time.