HISTORY: James Oglethorpe obtains charter to establish colony in Georgia; William Byrd founds Richmond; Last of the Medici dies; Frederick the Great of Prussia begins war against Maria Theresa.

ARTS: Building of State House in Philadelphia, later named Independence Hall; First public concerts held at Boston, Massachusetts, and Charleston, South Carolina; English statutes against witchcraft repealed; Papal bull against Freemasonry; Moravian Church founded in America.

SCIENCE/GROWTH: English mathematician invents quadrant for use at sea; 10 Downing Street, Westminster, London, residence of British prime ministers, built; Benjamin Franklin: "Poor Richard's Almanack" issued; John Kay patents his flying shuttle loom; "Czar Kolokol," great bell of Moscow, weighing 193 tons, is cast; 8,000 Salzburg Protestants settle in Georgia; First horse race in America at Charleston Neck, South Carolina; Royal Burgess Golfing Society, Edinburgh, founded; John Peter Zenger acquitted of seditious libel in landmark trial for freedom of the press; First successful operation for appendicitis; Manufacture of glass begins in Venice at Murano; French physician, invents the guillotine; University of Pennsylvania founded; Frederick the Great introduces freedom of press and freedom of worship in Prussia.